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Table 1 Under-served groups identified from stakeholder groups and surveys

From: Developing a roadmap to improve trial delivery for under-served groups: results from a UK multi-stakeholder process

Groups by demographic factors
 Age extremes (e.g. under 18 and over 75)
 Women of childbearing age
 Black, Asian and Ethnic Minorities (BAME)
 Male or female sex (depending on trial context)
 LGBTQ/sexual orientation
 Educational disadvantage
Groups by social and economic factors
 In full-time employment
 Unemployed/low income
 Military veterans
 People in alternative residential circumstancesa
 People living in remote areas
 Religious minorities
 Carers
 People not fluent in the majority language
 People who do not attend regular medical appointments
 People in multiple excluded categories
 Socially marginalised people
 Stigmatised populations
 Looked after children
Groups by health status
 Mental health conditions
 People who lack the capacity to consent for themselves
 Cognitive impairment
 Learning disability
 People with addictions
 Pregnant women
 People with multiple health conditions
 Physical disabilities
 Visually/hearing impaired
 Too severely ill
 Smokers
 People living with obesity
Groups by disease-specific factors
 Rare diseases and genetic disease subtypes
 People in cancer trials with brain metastases
  1. aThis category includes migrants, asylum seekers, prison populations, care homes, traveller communities and homeless