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Table 3 Known complications associated with ablative procedures in Catheter Ablation versus Thoracoscopic Surgical Ablation in Long Standing Persistent Atrial Fibrillation study

From: Catheter Ablation versus Thoracoscopic Surgical Ablation in Long Standing Persistent Atrial Fibrillation (CASA-AF): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

Adverse events Serious adverse events
Bruising, hematoma, vascular injury not requiring intervention Vascular complications requiring blood transfusion or intervention
Pericardial/pleural effusion (observation only) Symptomatic pericardial/pleural effusion or requiring intervention
Broken rib Stroke/transient ischemic attack
Pneumothorax requiring observation Pneumothorax requiring chest drain
Infection (i.e., pneumonia) Empyema
Pulmonary oedema Myocardial infarction
Temporary phrenic nerve damage Permanent phrenic nerve damage
Pain near surgical sites Pulmonary vein stenosis (> 50% reduction in diameter from baseline)
  Requirement to insert PPM (with or without prior conduction tissue damage)
  Cardiac trauma requiring surgical intervention
  Radiation-induced skin damage
  Oesophageal atrial fistula
  Death
  1. PPM Permanent pacemaker