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Table 2 HEALD baseline characteristics

From: Alternation as a form of allocation for quality improvement studies in primary healthcare settings: the on-off study design

Characteristic Intervention (n =102) Active control (n = 96)  
  n or mean (% or SD) n or mean (% or SD) p value
Age (years) 58.0 (8.2) 61.3 (8.4) 0.007
Sex (% female) 46 (48 %) 54 (54 %) 0.4
BMI (kg/m2) 34.6 (6.5) 32.5 (6.5) 0.04
Waist circumference (cm) 112.5 (14.9) 108.7 (15.4) 0.09
Weight (kg) 98.7 (20.6) 93.6 (20.8) 0.1
Resting heart rate (beats/minute) 71.0 (10.9) 70.7 (10.9) 0.8
3-day pedometer steps 16,761 (9238) 19,075 (10,096) 0.1
Glycemic index 52.3 (4.6) 51.1 (4.6) 0.1
Glycemic load 61.8 (15.3) 57.7 (16.6) 0.1
Energy intake (kcals)a 1318 (452) 1252 (467) 0.3
Systolic BP (mmHg) 125.8 (16.6) 125.4 (15.9) 0.8
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 75.0 (8.7) 76.9 (8.8) 0.1
HbA1c (%) 6.9 (1.2) 6.6 (0.9) 0.1
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.2 (0.7) 2.4 (0.9) 0.1
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.2 (0.4) 1.20 (0.5) 0.7
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.2 (0.9) 4.5 (1.0) 0.1
Education to less than high school level 2 (1.9 %) 4 (4.2 %) 1.0
Employed 67 (65.7 %) 55 (57.3 %) 0.6
White 84 (82.3 %) 78 (81.2 %) 1.0
Income (CAD)    
 < $40,000 26 (25.5 %) 17 (17.7 %) 0.8
 $40,000–$80,000 39 (38.2 %) 58 (50 %)
 > $80,000 37 (36.3 %) 31 (32.3 %)
  1. aEnergy in kilocalories estimated from food frequency questionnaires
  2. BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, HbA1 c , glycosylated hemoglobin, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, CAD=Canadian Dollars