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Table 2 Variables, measures, and methods of analysis

From: Acupuncture for adolescents with mild-to-moderate myopia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Variable/outcome Hypothesis Outcome measure Methods of analysis
1) Primary Intervention improved outcome from baseline to 7 days Adherence% (>80%) [binary]  
Diopter Diopter reduced or increased after treatment Diopter [continuous] t-test (rank-sum test) or repeated measurement
2) Secondary Intervention improved outcome from baseline to 7 days Adherence% (>80%) [binary]  
Visual acuity Visual acuity did not increase or decrease after treatment Visual acuity changes [continuous] t-test (rank-sum test) or repeated measurement
Axial length Axial length was not increased Axial length changes [continuous] t-test (rank-sum test) or repeated measurement
Lens thickness Lens thickness was not increased Lens thickness changes [continuous] t-test (rank-sum test) or repeated measurement
Ciliary body thickness Ciliary body thickness was not increased Ciliary body thickness changes [continuous] t-test (rank-sum test) or repeated measurement
Eye symptoms and systemic symptoms No adverse symptoms No adverse symptoms Chi-squared test or Fisher’s exact test
Compliance Compliance Cure rate [binary] Chi-squared test or Fisher’s exact test
Combination therapy/treatment Improvement occurred Whether other drugs were used during treatment [binary] Chi-squared test or Fisher’s exact test
Adverse event Improvement occurred Presence of drug-related adverse event [binary] Chi-squared test or Fisher’s exact test
3) Baseline analyses:   Adherence% (>80%) [continuous]  
Age   CRF [continuous] t-test (rank-sum test)
Weight and height   CRF [continuous] t-test (rank-sum test)
Female versus male   CRF [binary] Chi-squared test or Fisher’s exact test
Race   CRF [more categories] Chi-squared test or rank-sum test
Birth weight   CRF [continuous] t-test (rank-sum test)
Preterm children   CRF [binary] Chi-squared test or Fisher’s exact test
Parental myopia or not   CRF [binary] Chi-squared test or Fisher’s exact test
Sibling myopia or not   CRF [binary] Chi-squared test or Fisher’s exact test
Daily close reading time   CRF [continuous] t-test (rank-sum test)
Outdoor time   CRF [continuous] t-test (rank-sum test)
Eye exercises every day or not   CRF [binary] Chi-squared test or Fisher’s exact test
Daily sleep time   CRF [continuous] t-test (rank-sum test)
Room light conditions   CRF [binary] Chi-squared test or Fisher’s exact test
Poor reading habits   CRF [more categories] Chi-squared test or rank-sum test
  1. CRF, case report form ; rank-sum test, Wilcoxon rank-sum test; t-test, Student’s t-test.